S. Srivardhan, who owns this Mahindra CJ-3B built to Indian military specs (see a rear view photo, 70K JPEG), provided the following brief history of Mahindra & Mahindra:
"Initially they were a trading company, importing post-war Willys Jeeps as completely built units, and later on started importing semi-knocked-down kits, which were assembled in India. In the early 1960s they started manufacturing Jeeps. Until 1968 they were left-hand-drive, which changed in the 1970's as in India we drive on the left."
Another change happening in the 1970's when this photo of the Mahindra & Mahindra factory in Bombay was taken, was the shift from gasoline to diesel:
"Since the cost of gasoline rose steeply because of the oil crisis in the 70's, and the price of diesel was just one-third the price of gasoline, Mahindra started fitting the International Harvester diesel engines, from the tractors they were manufacturing. As of 2002 they have four engine options for the Jeeps -- the Hurricane gasoline engine, a 2400cc direct injection diesel (IH), Peugeot 2112cc XDP4.9, and Peugeot 2500cc XD3. These Jeeps come with various body styles -- short wheelbase Jeep, long wheelbase, Forward Control minibus, and flatbed trucks with single and twin cab (using the front of the CJ-3B)."
Uday Bhan Singh adds, "Only the Indian Defence services and some government departments bought the Hurricanes, while the majority of the Jeeps were sold with diesel engines. All along, the Army ordered the SWB CJ-3B with Hurricane engine until the 1990s."
This CJ-3B built under licence by Mahindra served as a "Highway Patrol" vehicle for the West Bengal Police. See also a police CJ-3B (240K JPEG) photographed in Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh, by Siddhartha Shukla in 2008, copyright Ikikon_18 at flickr.
Mahindra adopted the "Universal" name in their early advertising. See a complete copy of this brochure (80K JPEG) for "The World's Biggest Little Vehicle." It's from the pre-diesel period, promoting the Hurricane-powered CJ-3B and long-wheelbase "CJ-4".
The other side of the brochure has specifications (80K JPEG) for both models, in four- and two-wheel drive.
Another short-lived name was the "Globe-Trotter." This brochure probably dates from the 1970's and shows the front fender extensions possibly inspired by the Mitsubishi Jeeps in Japan. Marker lights have been added atop the fenders, but these were likely prone to breakage and were soon redesigned.
The full hard doors with soft roof was a look that didn't catch on in North America until AMC's YJ Wrangler debuted in 1987 -- it was also perhaps inspired by Mitsubishi.
Here's a photo from Ed Bee in Bombay that really evokes India. This 1970's model is still quite similar to the original Willys CJ-3B, although Mahindra has now added new marker lights supported by fiberglass brackets on the dog-eared fenders.
S. Srivardhan photographed these long-wheelbase Mahindras at Mercara, an area of coffee plantations in the state of Coorg, Karnataka. Still in production as of 2002, the four-door Commander 650 is based on CJ-3B bodywork. The next model up, the 750 (see The Streets of Bombay) has a CJ-5-style front end, while the top-of-the-line hardtop Armada has rectangular headlights.See also a front view (30K JPEG) of this Commander, with its dual driving lamps and dual horns.
The MM540 has been in production for many years, and is Mahindra's distinctive combination of the CJ-5/CJ-7. Note that the headlights don't extend into the grille slots as on all the U.S.-built models. Uday Bhan Singh comments, "The new model MM540 was inspired by the KIA Jeeps, which looked like the CJ-5, with a Peugeot XDP 4.90 diesel engine and a five-speed KM T90 gearbox (4X4 and 4X2 versons were offered.) A petrol version with the F134 engines was also available in the 540."
Horns are clearly important in India; the pair on this Jeep are only slightly less obvious than on the Commander above.
S. Srivardhan also photographed an MM540 with a rear-mounted extension ladder (30K JPEG), belonging to the state electricity department.
The Mahindra Pickups are available in single-cab and crew-cab versions. As well as some flatfenders, there are models like this one with the MM bodywork, and some with a 5-slot grille similar to the DJ-5A U.S. Postal Jeeps.
See also a flatbed body with backhoe (180K JPEG) photographed by Michael Kohli, who says it's used for clearing ditches on narrow roads. The badge on the side of the cab with supersized rear window (150K JPEG) reads "Mahindra Pickup."
Military-spec Jeeps include the "Rakshak", a bulletproof vehicle with ballistic protection designed by the Israeli company Plasan Sasa. Sides and floor are covered with armor including steel, high performance polyethylene and aramid laminates. Mahindra refers to it as an "effective aid in counter-insurgency and anti-terrorism operations as well as on the battlefield." Might want to paint those wheels.
The Mahindra web site seems to indicate that as of 2011 the current models no longer include a CJ-3B-style Jeep. Late 1990's vehicles included the NC 640 DP pickup (25K GIF) and the Mahindra Classic (25K GIF), a CJ-3B with all the trimmings, as well as this MM540DP diesel-engined ambulance.
Thanks to Ed Bee, John Carroll, Uday Bhan Singh and S. Srivardhan. -- Derek Redmond
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